The science behind Molecular vapour deposition (MVD) in protecting circuit boards

Nexus has been examining a new, novel technique that may be able to superior protection for electronic circuit boards compared to the standard coating methods like conformal coatings and Parylene but also actually be cost-effective.

This process is a hybrid ALD (Atomic Layer Deposition)/CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) technique called Molecular Vapor Deposition (MVD).

This method uses multiple layers of ultra-thin coatings with differing properties to build a completely protective coating.

So, why is this new coating so good compared to Parylene and other conformal coatings?

The final MVD coating built up is much thinner than the other traditional coatings including Parylene. However, its protective performance has been found to be superior to them all in most categories of testing so far.

Key performance indicators like Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR), optical clarity, temperature resistance and hydrophobicity have been found to be much better than the other coatings.

Further, the really exciting part about this technology is the cost of processing that is extremely low.

Since the coating is extremely thin then it has been found that no masking is required. This is because when components like connectors are joined together then the ultrathin coating does not prevent electrical connection.

This means that the cost of process is purely the cost of application of the material and nothing else.

Since the process is relatively low cost then this does offer a very interesting alternative to the traditional coating materials.

So what does the science of Molecular Vapor Deposition coating (MVD) look like?

The actual film is built up of alternating layers of ALD and CVD thin coating layers.

The ALD is a ceramic-based material providing the insulating properties. The CVD film provides the barrier protection.

First, an ALD layer is applied to the substrate. Then a CVD layer is applied. Then a further ALD layer is applied and so on.

This continues until the correct number of layers is built that has the right protection.

Description of Hybrid ALD_CVD Technology

Finally, once the required film thickness is achieved with the alternating layers, then a final hydrophobic thin film layer is applied, that combines with the ALD and CVD layers to provide a highly effective barrier.

So, just how good is the hybrid coating as a protective material for electronic circuit boards?

Generally, with protective coatings for electronics then Parylene is considered the gold standard in most cases.

So, Nexus compared Parylene with the MVD material.

Property Parylene MVD Coating
Hardness Soft Hard
Wear resistance/Handling Ease Poor Excellent
Water Vapor Transmission Rate Good Excellent
Temperature Resistance (extended time) 100°C 350°C
Color Gray/white Clear
Adhesion to various materials Poor Excellent
Scalable to large production Poor Excellent
Process Time 8 – 12 hrs 8 – 12 hrs
Hydrophobicity Good Good – Excellent
Cost High Low – Med

What Nexus also identified for the material were some key properties.

  • The Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR) is superior to Parylene so the coating is far more waterproof.
  • Coating adhesion is superior as it covalently bonds to the substrate. So, the lifetime of the material will be better on the circuit.
  • The temperature range of the material can be up to 350C without any degradation.
  • The hybrid coating is UV stable whereas Parylene in general is not. This is an important criteria for coatings exposed to UV light.
  • The coating stayed 100% transparent during testing (no loss of lux).
  • The coating thickness of the hybrid material is x10 LESS than the Parylene. This aids light transmission and electric connectivity

So, in reality the MVD material could just be what industries like the automotive and LED sectors are looking for in protecting their circuits where cost and protection abilities are critical.

Need to find out more?

Contact us directly and we can help you with this new material.

If you are new to Nexus and our work on conformal coatings then a good place to go is our Start Here page or our free conformal coating eBook.

Author: nexus3c

A global resource for the Conformal Coating industry providing information, solutions, connections and advice on all areas of Conformal Coating including Conformal Coating Service, Equipment, Materials, Training, Documentation and Consultancy.

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